3D Scanning and Printing

additive vs subtractive processes

printing
   motivations
      complexity
      access
      waste
   constraints
      failure
      resolution
      time
      cost
      materials
         PLA, PETG, PMMA, ABS, HIPS, ...
      ventilation
      design rules
         supports
            overhang FCStd jpg stl
            clearance FCStd jpg stl
         unsupported
            angle FCStd jpg stl
            overhang FCStd jpg stl
            bridging FCStd jpg stl
         wall thickness FCStd jpg stl
         dimensions FCStd jpg stl
         anisotropy FCStd jpg stl
         surface finish FCStd jpg stl
         infill FCStd jpg stl
      post-processing
   processes
      stereolithography
      fused-deposition molding extrusion contour crafting
      DED, WAAM
      ink-jet binder
      PolyJet
      cut sheets
      selective laser sintering
      CLIP
      two photon
      digital
   machines
      RepRap
      Ultimaker
      MakerBot
      Prusa MMU parts
      Sindoh
      Formlabs parts
      Objet parts
      MTM
      Precious Plastic
   materials
      Proto-pasta
      MatterHackers
      NinjaTek
   service bureaus
      print farms
      Shapeways
      Ponoko
      Additively
      Moog

file formats
   STL
      ASCII
         solid object_name
            facet normal n1 n2 n3
               outer loop
                  vertex v11 v12 v13
                  vertex v21 v22 v23
                  vertex v31 v32 v33
               endloop
            endfacet
            ...
         endsolid object_name
      binary
         80 byte ASCII header
         32-bit integer number of facets
         50 byte facet records
            32-bit IEEE floats
            normal
            vertices 1,2,3
            2 byte attribute
      right hand rule
      normal (optional)
      (lack of) units
   PLY
   AMF 3MF
   OBJ, 3ds, DXF
   VRML, X3D
   FREP, BREP
      adaptively-sampled distance fields
   volumetric
      .vol, .tiff, .gif
      marching cubes
      fab modules vol_gif gif_stl gif_png
   G-codes
      non-planar paths

software
   meshing
      MeshLab netfabb meshmixer Geomagic
   slicing
      ReplicatorG Skeinforge Slic3r Cura IceSL
   printing
      Printrun OctoPrint
   sharing
      Sketchfab Thingiverse

scanning
   point cloud, triangulation, watertight, texture
   tomography Radon transform micro-CT
   scanned probe
   confocal
   serial sections
   opacity
   digitizer
   laser FabScan
   lidar
   array illumination
   time of flight
   vision
   photogrammetry ReCap PhotoScan VisualSFM SCANN3D 3DSOM Qlone
      AliceVision Meshroom COLMAP
   speckle OpenKinect ReconstructMe Skanect Sense iSense
   structured light laser pico-projector
   light stages
   SLAM

assignment
   group assignment:
      - test the design rules for your 3D printer(s)
   individual assignment:
      - design and 3D print an object (small, few cm3, limited by printer time)
         that could not be made subtractively
      - 3D scan an object (and optionally print it)