Output Devices

electrical safety
   ~1 mA: OK
   ~10 mA: shock, contraction
   ~100 mA: fibrillation
   body: M ohm external, k ohm internal
   dielectric breakdown: ~kV/mm
   supply capacitors
   inductive flyback
   protection diodes
   connector polarization, orientation
   protection

power
   USB
   supplies
      switching, linear, regulated
   supercapacitor
   batteries
      LiPo charge controller storage
   wireless

current measurement
   supply regulation
   sense resistor
   magnetic field
   inductance

RGB LED
   current limiting
   PWM
   hello.RGB.45 board components traces interior C makefile video
   pinouts
   pixels lights wires

LEDs
   diode drop, series-parallel
   MOSFET
      N, P
      floating gates
      gate resistors
      BJT, BiCMOS, IGBT
   hello.LEDs.t412 board components traces interior
      hello.LEDs.t412.ino video
      thermal runaway
      eye safety

LED array
   Charlieplexing
   hello.array.44 board components traces interior C makefile video
   hello.array.44.2 board components bottom vias top interior C makefile video

displays
   LCD
      HD44780 library
         hello.LCD.44 board components traces interior C makefile video
      I2C PCF8574 library
         hello.I2C.t1614 hello.LCD.I2C.ino video
   OLED
      SSD1306 library library scripts pinout
         hello.SSD1306.45 board components traces interior C makefile video
   TFT
      ILI9341 library
         hello.ILI9341.SW.D21E board components traces interior video
         hello.ILI9341.HW.D21E board components top bottom holes interior video
      ST7735 video
   E Ink modules

video
   RS170, NTSC, PAL, SECAM, VGA
   75 ohm impedance
   hello.video.44 board components traces interior C makefile video
   SPI TVout thinner client color

speaker
   DAC, PWM
   hello.speaker.45 board components traces interior C makefile video
   wavetable audio synthesis
   low-pass filter
   class D amplifier

solenoid

DC motor
   H-bridge
      A4950 TB67H451FNG,EL
         hello.H-bridge.44 board components traces interior C makefile video
   Dual H-bridge
      DRV8847
   torque, power, efficiency, gearing
   vibration

servo motor
   50 Hz ~1-2 ms PWM
   (dis)continuous rotation
   ATtiny412
      hello.servo.t412 board components traces interior
      hello.servo.t412.ino hello.servo-registers.t412.ino video
   ATSAMD11C
      hello.servo-D11C board traces interior
         Gerber top copper solder mask silkscreen outline
   ATtiny44
      hello.servo.44 board components traces interior
         ZLDO1117
      hello.servo.44.1 board components traces interior
         LM2940
      C (hardware PWM) makefile C (two-channel, software PWM) makefile video

brushless DC motor (BLDC)
   efficiency, density, reliability, noise
   inrunner, outrunner, pancake, fan
   Kv (RPM/V)
   ~1,10,100,1000 A,$
   triple half-bridge
      DRV11873
   drive waveform
   open-loop, closed-loop control
   back EMF (BEMF) sensing
   electronic speed controller (ESC)
      hello.ESC.44 board components traces interior C makefile video
      firmware
      servo PWM
      initialization, calibration

stepper motor
   types
   wire identification
   step PWM, duration
   microstepping
   step and direction
      DRV8428
         hello.DRV8428 board components traces interior
            hello.DRV8428.ino video
         hello.DRV8428-D11C-NEMA17 board components traces holes interior
            Gerber top copper solder mask silkscreen outline
         hello.DRV8428-D11C board components traces holes interior
            hello.DRV8428-D11C.ino video
      DVR8428P DRV8436
   bipolar H-bridge
      hello.stepper.bipolar.44 board components traces interior
      full makefile video
   unipolar NMOSFET
      hello.stepper.44 board components traces interior
      wave makefile full makefile half makefile video
   electro-permanent

motor control
   Allegro
   TI
   Trinamic
   Pololu
   TinyG RAMPS Mechaduino nRF52 DDMC

solid state relay
   AC vs DC
   IC
   hockey puck
   wiring
      voltage drop: ~V
      safety: switch hot side
      US: black (red,blue) = hot, white = neutral, green(-yellow) = ground
      EU: brown (black,gray) = hot, blue = neutral, green-yellow = ground
   switched outlet

shape memory

piezo polymer

artificial muscle fishing line conducting thread actuator

soft inflatable

pneumatics hydraulics

assignment
   individual assignment:
      add an output device to a microcontroller board you've designed,
         and program it to do something
   group assignment:
      measure the power consumption of an output device