Output Devices

electrical safety
   ~1 mA: OK
   ~10 mA: shock, contraction
   ~100 mA: fibrillation
   body: M ohm external, k ohm internal
   dielectric breakdown: ~kV/mm
   supply capacitors
   inductive flyback
   protection diodes
   connector polarization, orientation

power supply
   switching, linear, regulated

current measurement
   supply regulation
   sense resistor
   magnetic field
   inductance

RGB LED
   PWM
   hello.RGB.45.cad board components traces interior C makefile video
   pixels, lights, wires

LED array
   Charlieplexing
   hello.array.44.cad board components traces interior C makefile video
   hello.array.44.2.cad board components bottom vias top interior C makefile video
   
LCD
   44780
   hello.LCD.44.cad board components traces interior C makefile video
   OLED

video
   RS170, NTSC, PAL, SECAM, VGA
   75 ohm impedance
   hello.video.44.cad board components traces interior C makefile video
   asm
   SPI TVout thinner client color

speaker
   MOSFET
      NDS355AN, NDS356AP, RFD16N05LSM9A
   hello.speaker.45.cad board components traces interior C makefile video
   wavetable 
   floating gates
   gate resistors
   low-pass filters
   class D amplifiers

solenoid

DC motor
   H-bridge
      A4953, A4950, DRV8838
   hello.H-bridge.44.cad board components traces interior C makefile video
   torque, power, efficiency, gearing
   vibration

servo motor
   50 Hz ~1-2 ms PWM
   hello.servo.44.cad board components traces interior
   C (hardware PWM) makefile C (two-channel, software PWM) makefile video
   ZLDO1117 vs LM2940 pinout

brushless DC motor (BLDC)
   efficiency, density, reliability, noise
   inrunner, outrunner, pancake, fan
   Kv (RPM/V)
   ~1,10,100 A,$
   triple half-bridge
      A4941, A4963
   drive waveform
   open-loop, closed-loop control
   back EMF (BEMF) sensing
   electronic speed controller (ESC)
      firmware
      servo PWM
      initialization, calibration
      LiPo batteries

stepper motor
   unipolar
      hello.stepper.44.cad board components traces interior
      wave makefile full makefile half makefile video
   bipolar
      hello.stepper.bipolar.44.cad board components traces interior
      full makefile video
   wire identification
   step PWM, duration
   microstepping
   electro-permanent

motor control
   Allegro
   TI
   Trinamic
   Pololu
   TinyG RAMPS Mechaduino nRF52

solid state relay
   AC vs DC
   IC
   hockey puck
   wiring
      voltage drop: ~1.6V
      safety: switch hot side
      US: black (red,blue) = hot, white = neutral, green(-yellow) = ground
      EU: brown (black,gray) = hot, blue = neutral, green-yellow = ground

piezo

shape memory

inflatable

hydraulic

assignment
   individual assignment:
      add an output device to a microcontroller board you've designed,
         and program it to do something
   group assignment:
      measure the power consumption of an output device